Diagnosis and Treatment
Tests for pre-diabetes, type 1 and type 2 diabetes
The most common test is Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test although other tests are available. The Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) blood test indicates a person’s average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates diabetes.
Tests for gestational diabetes
Screening for gestational diabetes is a routine part of prenatal care. Most health care providers recommend a blood test known as a glucose challenge test between the twenty-fourth and twenty-eighth week of pregnancy — or earlier if at high risk of gestational diabetes.
Treatments/management for type 1 and type 2 diabetes
Treatment for type 1 and type 2 diabetes primarily involves monitoring blood sugar along with insulin, diabetes medications or both. Treatment is important and should be managed by a doctor.
- Monitoring blood sugar: Depending on the treatment plan, a person may check and record their blood sugar level several times a week to several times a day. Careful monitoring is the only way to make sure that blood sugar level remains within the target range.
- Insulin: Anyone who has type 1 diabetes and some people with type 2 diabetes need insulin. Often, insulin is injected using a fine needle and syringe or an insulin pen — a device that looks like an ink pen, except the cartridge is filled with insulin.
- Oral or other medications: Sometimes other oral or injected medications are prescribed as well.
- Foot exams: People with diabetes can develop many different foot problems. The LEAP Alliance offers tips to keep feet healthy and lists community foot screenings.
- Eye Exams: Diabetes can cause eye problems and may lead to blindness. Early detection and treatment of eye problems can save someone’s sight. The Get Eye Smart website offers tips to keep eyes healthy.
Additional resources to help manage diabetes:
- The iDo Coalition developed fact sheets to help people manage their diabetes.
- The American Diabetes Association offers healthy recipes to help with meal planning.
- Free diabetes materials are available from the National Diabetes Education Program website.
Nevada Diabetes Resource Directory
- The Nevada Diabetes Association for Children and Adults has created the Nevada Diabetes Resource Directory of doctors in Nevada who specialize in diabetes care.
Also included in the directory are low cost clinics, help with medications, support groups and other services available in Nevada.
Download the 2015 – 2016 directory in English or Spanish. PDF
Treatment for gestational diabetes
Controlling blood sugar level is essential to keeping the baby healthy and avoiding complications during delivery. In addition to maintaining a healthy diet and exercising, a treatment plan may include monitoring blood sugar and, in some cases, using insulin.
A health care provider will monitor a woman’s blood sugar level during labor. If her blood sugar rises, her baby may release high levels of insulin — which can lead to low blood sugar right after birth. Learn more about gestational diabetes from the American Diabetes Association.
Treatment for pre-diabetes
For people with pre-diabetes, healthy lifestyle choices can help bring blood sugar level back to normal or at least keep it from rising toward the levels seen in type 2 diabetes. Maintaining a healthy weight through exercise and healthy eating can help. Sometimes medications are an option for people at high risk for diabetes.